I can imagine paleontologists drooling over our applications’ changelogs. I’m sure they wish they had a record of the exact environment that caused a recently uncovered Protoceratops to grow that very interesting third eyeball. They don’t know when a helper method was added to give this horn-faced herbivore the ability to see oncoming predators, but unfortunately, made it trip over its feet running away.

We have this power. We can see when the responsibilities of a class grew. We can see how a method changed and a private method was created to hide complexity. We can see how a test was written, mocking that newly created method. We may not have been there when it happened, but seeing that history can help us understand change.

History is still being written

Some of my favorite conversations about code design begin with understanding how past environments influenced behavior. Unlike our paleontologist friend, though, we are not stuck in the past. For us, conversations about the past are a starting place to help design the future.

We can create an environment that motivates change.

Questioning responsibility

One conversation I continue to enjoy is about responsibility. The conversation really boils down to one question.

Should it really be the responsibility of X to do Y?

From that general structure, there are many ways to ask questions about responsibility. Fortunately for us, these types of questions work very well on code that’s already been written.

Should an account really answer a question about a user?

class Account
  def user_valid_admin?
    !@user.deactivated_at && @user.admin

Should an order really know so much about a camera?

class Order
  def package_size
    if @camera.compact?
    else if (@camera.packaged_lenses.include? { |lens| lens.length_mm > 50 }) || (@camera.packaged_lenses.length > 2)

Should an event really build the right ticket?

class Event
  def self.create_ticket(event_id, customer, seat=nil)
    event = self.find event_id
    if customer.vip?
      Ticket.create(event: event, type: BACKSTAGE_PASS)
    else if seat
      Ticket.create(event: event, type: ASSIGNED, seat: seat)
      Ticket.create(event: event, type: GENERAL)

The first time I asked a question like this, I was blown away by how it affected my thought process, and I was blown away by the fact that *all I needed to do was ask*.

Understanding change

As our code evolves, so do the responsibilities of the classes that we originally wrote. Even the cleanest methods with perfect names eventually change. Unfortunately, change usually means that the purpose of a unit has strayed from its original definition. I see this happen when code is added to a class because it already exists — because it’s a convenient place to put another conditional.

When we start with a reflective question, we can begin to understand, though. A gut check about responsibility often grows into a more thoughtful exercise where we can define the responsibility a class should have.

Each class and each method should have a single purpose, and a name that focuses its responsibilities.

Questions help us pause to evaluate what’s there and how it happened. We can understand the evolution of our code by looking at the changes in functionality. A change here, and another one there, and now the responsibilities of the class no longer match its name. We can identify the changes we already know our code needs.

Redefining responsibility

Our poor dinosaur friend didn’t have a chance to move its misplaced eyeball, but this is software. We don’t have the normal constraints of the natural world. We’re only constrained by our ability to envision where responsibility should lie.

Where should it lie, then?

We can ask an object about itself


We can tell an object to perform an action for itself


We can create classes and methods whose names reflect their purpose

class TicketBuilder
  def create(event, customer, seat)
    if customer.vip?
    else if seat
      Ticket.create_assigned_seat(event, seat)

Each of these changes helps to redefine the responsibilities of a class or method. They help the unit remain focused on one thing.

To create change like this, I use guidelines:

  • Each class and method should have one purpose.
  • The responsibilities of the unit should be limited to achieve that purpose.
  • The name of the unit should be accurate and provide focus.
  • The unit should interact with other well-named, focused components to clarify its purpose.

Guidelines like this help me answer my own questions and promote the right change. They helped me create the changes to the examples above. They help me create change with the teams I work with. They drive my favorite conversations about responsibility.

The paleontologist developer

The mark of a paleontologist is their habit of questioning the past.

As our code ages it will gain complexity and stray from its original purpose. A thoughtful developer will question the evolution of code in the same way as a paleontologist. Both want to understand how change happened, but only one has the opportunity to make change happen. Take advantage of the unique malleability of the products we produce, and ask questions.

All we need to do is ask.

Sam Jones

Person An icon of a human figure Status
Double Agent
Hash An icon of a hash sign Code Name
Agent 0019
Location An icon of a map marker Location
Philadelphia, PA